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Glossary and APM

PZU AR 2020 > About the report > Glossary and APM
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Glossary 

insurance agent – commercial undertaking conducting agency activity pursuant to an agreement executed with an insurance undertaking. The activity of agents focuses on acquiring customers, entering into insurance contracts, participating in the administration and performance of insurance agreements and organizing and supervising agency activity.

assurbanking – distribution of banking products by insurance companies.

bancassurance – distribution of insurance products by banks.

insurance broker – entity holding a permit to conduct brokerage activity. Performs activities on behalf or in favor of an entity seeking insurance cover.

cross-selling – sales strategy for selling an insurance product in combination with a complementary insurance product or an insurer’s partner’s product, e.g. a bank’s product. Bancassurance products such as credit insurance may serve as an example.

P/BV (Price to Book Value) – indicator specifying the ratio of the market price to the book value per share.

P/E (Price to Earnings) – indicator specifying the ratio of the company’s market price (per share) to earnings per share.

DPS (Dividend Per Share) – market multiple specifying the dividend per share.

DY (Dividend Yield) – market multiple specifying the ratio of the dividend per share to the market share price.

EPS (Earnings Per Share) – market multiple specifying earnings per share.

IDD – Directive (EU) 2016/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 January 2016 on insurance distribution (Insurance Distribution Directive).

IPO (Initial Public Offering) – public offering of specific securities performed for the first time. One of the most important elements of an initial public offering is the preparation of a prospectus and the proceeding before the institution supervising admission to be traded publicly.

Civil Code – Act of 23 April 1964 entitled Civil Code.

Commercial Company Code – Act of 15 September 2000 entitled Commercial Company Code ECSs – Employee Capital Schemes defined by the provisions of the Act of 4 October 2018 on Employee Capital Schemes.

PRIIP – Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2017/653 of 8 March 2017 supplementing Regulation (EU) No. 1286/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council on key information documents for packaged retail and insurancebased investment products.

reinsurance – transfer to some other insurance undertaking – the reinsurer – of all or part of the insured risk or class of risks along with the pertinent portion of the premiums. As a result of reinsurance, a secondary split of risks transpires to minimize the risks to the insurance market.

outward reinsurancereinsurance activity whereby the insurer (cedent) transfers a portion of the concluded insurance to a reinsurer or reinsurers in the form of a reinsurance agreement.

inward reinsurancereinsurance activity whereby a reinsurer or reinsurers accept a portion of insurance or a class of insurance transferred by a cedent.

technical provisions – provisions that should ensure full coverage of current and future liabilities that may result from executed insurance contracts. The following, in particular, are included in technical provisions: provision for unearned premiums, provision for outstanding claims and benefits, provision for unexpired risks, provision for investment risk borne by policyholders and provision for bonuses and discounts for insureds.

RODO – (GDPR) Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC.

CRR – Regulation (EU) No. 575/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on prudential requirements for credit institutions and investment firms (Capital Requirements Regulation).

Regulation on Current and Periodic Information – Finance Minister’s Regulation of 29 March 2018 on Current and Periodic Information Transmitted by Securities Issuers and the Conditions for Recognizing the Information Required by the Regulations of a Non-Member State as Equivalent (Journal of Laws of 2018, item 757).

credit scoring – method for assessing the credibility of an entity (usually a natural person or a business) applying for a bank loan. The result of credit scoring is ordinarily presented in the form of a score – the higher the number of points, the greater the credibility of a prospective borrower.

sell side – part of the financial sector involved in creating, promoting and selling equities, bonds, foreign currencies and other financial instruments; it includes investment bankers who act as intermediaries between securities issuers and investors as well as market makers who provide liquidity on the market. Sell-side analysts release research reports with investment recommendations and daily comments for the buy side, i.e. for asset managers.

gross written premium – the amounts of gross written premiums (net of the reinsurer’s share) due by virtue of the insurance contracts executed in the reporting period, notwithstanding the term of liability stemming from these agreements.

net earned premium – the gross written premium in a given period giving consideration to the settlement of revenues (premiums) over time through movement in the provisions for unearned premiums and the reinsurers’ share.

spread – the difference between the purchase and sale price of a financial instrument.

risk-free rate – rate of return on financial instruments with zero risk. In PZU the risk-free rate is based on the yield curves for treasuries and it is the basis for determining transfer prices in settlements between operating segments.

sum insured – amount in cash for which an insured object is insured. In non-life insurance the sum insured ordinarily constitutes the upper limit of the insurer’s liability.

TSR (Total Shareholder Return) – measure specifying the total rate of return obtained by shareholders by virtue of holding shares in a given company during an annual period. This measure expresses the sum total of profit stemming from the movement in the share price of a given company and the dividends paid during the time when an investor holds its shares in relation to its share value at the beginning of a given year. It is expressed as a percentage on an annualized basis.

Unit-linkedUnit-linked insurance fund, a separate fund consisting of assets constituting a provision consisting of insurance premiums invested in the manner specified in the insurance agreement, a constituent part of unit-linked life insurance also referred to as an investment policy.

Act on Statutory Auditors – Act of 11 May 2017 on Statutory Auditors, Audit Firms and Public Supervision (Journal of Laws of 2017, Item 1089, as amended).

UOKiK – Office of Competition and Consumer Protection, the Polish anti-trust authority, acting to ensure the development of competition, protect businesses exposed to monopolistic practices and protect consumer interests, www.uokik.gov.pl.

Insurance Activity Act – Act of 11 September 2015 on Insurance and Reinsurance Activity (Journal of Laws of 2015, Item 1844), with most regulations in force as of 1 January 2016. This Act introduced Solvency II requirements to the Polish legal system.

UX (User Experience) – area related to the experiences of users of the respective tool (or, more broadly, of a process, or interacting with the brand in general). It is associated directly with web usability, which is an empirical field of knowledge dealing with the design and testing of tools (in this case: online tools) in consideration of the needs and preferences of target users. In the context of websites, it involves broadly construed usefulness and effectiveness in attaining specific goals.

WIBOR6M – reference interest rate for a loan for 6 months on the Polish interbank market.

Solvency II – solvency system for European insurance undertakings taking the risk profile into account. These requirements have been in force since 1 January 2016.

prudent person principle – principle expressed in article 129 of the Solvency II Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Taking-up and Pursuit of the Business of Insurance and Reinsurance that imposes on insurance undertakings and reinsurance undertakings the requirement of investing assets in the policyholders’ best interest, properly matching investments to liabilities and duly incorporating the various types of financial risk, such as liquidity risk and concentration risk.

Alternative Performance Measure

Selected Alternative Performance Measures (APM) within the meaning of European Securities and Markets Authority Guidelines (ESMA) no. 2015/1415 are presented below. The profitability and operational efficiency indicators presented herein, constituting standard measures applied generally in financial analysis, provide, in the opinion of the Management Board, significant additional information about the PZU Group’s financial performance. Their usefulness was analyzed in terms of information, delivered to the investors, regarding the Group’s financial standing and financial performance.

Assets of external clients of TFI PZU and PTE PZU (PLN billion) – assets of external clients accumulated in the PZU “Złota Jesień” Open-End Pension Fund and the PZU Voluntary Pension Fund as well as all assets accumulated and managed by TFI PZU, other than those constituting own funds of PZU Group companies. An increase in this indicator means that the inflows of assets into the funds are greater than the outflows from the funds and/or that the funds generated positive rates of return on assets under management.

COR - combined operating ratio, calculated for the non-life insurance sector (section II). This is the ratio of insurance expenses related to insurance administration and the payment of claims (e.g. claims, acquisition and administrative expenses) to the net earned premium for a given period; a decrease in the value of this indicator signifies an improvement in efficiency.

PZU Zdrowie’s EBITDA margin – ratio of the sum of the operating result plus depreciation costs (for non-insurance activities) and the technical result (for insurance products) of PZU Zdrowie to the value of PZU Zdrowie’s revenues. PZU Zdrowie’s revenues include revenues from medical insurance sold by PZU Życie and other PZU Group companies, revenues from medical services sold by medical centers (including those provided by PZU Zdrowie), revenues from medical subscriptions and PZU Zdrowie’s revenues from medical benefits net of the impact of non-recurring transactions; an increase in the value of this indicator signifies an improvement in efficiency.

Net interest margin (NIM) – the difference between a bank’s net interest income earned on income-generating assets and interest expenses incurred on liabilities. It is the ratio of a bank’s earnings generated on interest to average assets net of matured interest on at-risk receivables; an increase in the value of this indicator signifies an improvement in efficiency.

Operating margin in life insurance – profitability of life insurance segments, calculated as the ratio of the result on operating activity to gross written premium; an increase in the value of this indicator signifies an improvement in efficiency.

Operating margin in group and individually continued insurance – profitability of the segment of group and individually continued insurance, calculated as the ratio of the result on operating activity without the conversion effect to gross written premium; an increase in the value of this indicator signifies an improvement in efficiency.

ROA (Return on Assets) – return on assets, calculated as the ratio of the annual net profit to the arithmetic mean of total assets at the beginning and end of the reporting period; an increase in the value of this indicator signifies an improvement in efficiency, i.e. a greater ability of the assets to generate profits.

ROE (Return on Equity) – attributable to equity holders of the parent – return on equity calculated as the ratio of the annual net profit attributable to owners of the parent company to the arithmetic mean of consolidated equity minus minority interest at the beginning and end of the reporting period; an increase in the value of this indicator signifies an improvement in efficiency and the ability to multiply funds entrusted by the owners (investors).

Consolidated ROE (Return on Equity) – return on equity calculated as the ratio of the annual net profit to the arithmetic mean of consolidated equity at the beginning and end of the reporting period; an increase in the value of this indicator signifies an improvement in efficiency and the ability to multiply funds entrusted by the owners.

Administrative expense ratio – the quotient of administrative expenses and net earned premium (for the non-life insurance sector) or gross written premium (for the life insurance sector); this indicator specifies the percentage share of administrative expenses in the premium, and a decrease in its value signifies an improvement in efficiency.

Acquisition expense ratio – the quotient of acquisition expenses (net of reinsurance commissions) and net earned premium (for the non-life insurance sector) or gross written premium (for the life insurance sector); this indicator specifies the percentage share of acquisition expenses in the premium, and a decrease in its value signifies an improvement in efficiency.

Insurance activity expense ratio – the quotient of insurance activity expenses (administrative expenses plus acquisition expenses net of reinsurance commissions) and net earned premium (for the non-life insurance sector) or gross written premium (for the life insurance sector); this indicator specifies the percentage share of insurance activity expenses in the premium, and a decrease in its value signifies an improvement in efficiency.

Gross loss ratio – the quotient of the sum of gross claims and benefits and movement in the provision for outstanding gross claims and benefits and gross written premium; it shows what portion of the premium was allocated to indemnification costs; a decrease in the value of this indicator signifies an improvement in efficiency.

Net loss ratio – the quotient of net insurance claims and benefits and net earned premium; it shows what portion of the premium was allocated to indemnification costs; a decrease in the value of this indicator signifies an improvement in efficiency.

Cost / Income ratio, C/I ratio (banking sector) – the quotient of administrative expenses and the sum of operating income, excluding: the BFG charge, the levy on other financial institutions and the net result on realization and impairment losses on investments; a decrease in the value of this indicator signifies an improvement in efficiency.

PZU Group’s solvency ratio – the level of coverage of the solvency capital requirement with the PZU Group’s own funds within the meaning of Directive 2009/138/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2009 on the taking-up and pursuit of the business of Insurance and Reinsurance (Solvency II), as amended and supplemented with related documents; an increase in the value of this indicator signifies an increase in the capital surplus.

Net result on asset management by TFI PZU and PTE PZU – the sum of two values: TFI PZU’s result on external distribution (i.e. operating result established as the difference between revenues and direct expenses allocated to external distribution, other than the PZU Group’s Assets, and indirect expenses allocated to external distribution based on the ABC model after deducting CIT at a rate of 19%) and PTE PZU’s net result. An increase in this result is usually due to a greater value of assets of external clients that are managed by the companies and/or an increase in the fee rates for asset management or/and a decrease in management expenses, and is considered a favorable occurrence.